Five Types of Blueberry Plants and Their Characteristics

Introduction

There are five types of blueberry plants commonly grown. This article list and discusses these and their characteristics. Some examples of popular varieties for each type is also listed.

1. : Northern Highbush Vaccinium corymbosum — These are high chill varieties for zones 3-7 with 800 to 1,000 chill hours needed. The Northern Highbush Blueberry is a species of blueberry native to eastern northern United States. They are high chill varieties and are the most extensively planted blueberries in the world. If these northern high-bush varieties do not get the required number of chill hours they will not produce. These bushes are rated zone 3 through zone 7 which includes most of the Central, Western, mid-West, and Eastern United States as well as some parts of Canada. These varieties display bush shapes from short and compact to tall and open. The berries range in size from ¼” to over 1″ in diameter, and in color from dark blue to light blue. Northern Highbush blueberries require a minimum of 800 chilling hours for proper fruit set. All cultivars are self-pollinating but will produce better crops if more than one variety is planted.

Some examples include:

  • Bluecrop is recommended for growing in zones 4 to 7.
  • Bluegold is also sometimes listed as a half high variety because of it short height and parentage. It is recommended for growing in zones 4 to 7.
  • Blueray is recommended for growing in zones 3 to 7.
  • Duke is recommended for growing in zones 4 to 7.
  • Elliott is recommended for growing in zones 4 to 7.
  • Hardyblue is recommended for growing in zones 4 to 8.
  • Jersey is recommended for growing in zones 4 to 7.
  • Legacy is recommended for growing in zones 5 to 8.
  • Patriot is also sometimes listed as a half high variety because of it short height and parentage. It is recommended for growing in zones 3 to 7.
  • Rubel is a wild Highbush type cultivar. It is recommended for growing in zones4 to 7.

2.: Southern Highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrid) — Southern Highbush are specifically hybridized to produce superior fruit, soil adaptability, heat tolerance and low winter chilling. The Southern Highbush blueberry is a cross between Northern Highbush blueberries and native Southern species, giving it a greater range of adaptation than either of its parents. The Southern Highbush tolerates a wider range of soil conditions and temperature variations. The fruits are smaller than Rabbiteye blueberries but no less tasty.These are low chill varieties for use in zones 5 to 10 with 150 to 800 chill hours required. Most Southern Highbush are self-pollinating, but the berries will be larger if two varieties are planted together. These varieties have low winter chilling requirements. “Chilling” is a measure of accumulated hours of temperatures below 45°F but above 32 degrees F in the dormant season.

Some examples include:

  • Jubilee is recommended for growing in zones 5 to 9.
  • Misty is recommended for growing in zones 5 to 10.
  • Oneal is recommended for growing in zones 5 to 9.
  • Sharpblue is recommended for growing in zones 7 to 9.
  • Sunshine Blue is recommended for growing in zones 5 to 10.
  • Golf coast is recommended for growing in zones 6 to10.
  • Ozarkblue is recommended for growing in zones 5 to 9.

3. : Half-High Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum x V. angustifolium)
Half-High Blueberries is a term used for a grouping of blueberry bushes with similar characteristics They are the result, as the name might signify, of crosses between Northern Highbush and Lowbush blueberries selections from the wild.. They will grow only 2 to 4 feet tall. These are generally high chill varieties for Zones 3 to 7 and need 1,000 to 1,200 of chill hours. In recent years, Agriculture Research Stations have released many new “half-high” blueberry plants. All these varieties have the “wild” flavor of their parents. The Half-Highs were bred for exceptional cold hardiness but are truly outstanding ornamental landscape plants wherever they are grown. All theses varieties have amazing fall colors. In general, these bushes will partially be able to pollinate themselves, though they will always do better with another variety with which they can to cross-pollinate.

Some examples include:

  • Northcountry– Its parentage is (G65X Ashworth) X R2P4 Univ. of Minnesota. It grows successfully in zones 3 to 7.
  • Northsky–.Its parentage is (G65 X Ashworth) X R2P4 Univ. of Minnesota. It grows successfully in zones 3 to 7.
  • Northland – Its source is Michigan Univ. It grows successfully in zones 3 to 7.
  • Polaris – Its parentage is Bluetta X (G65 X Ashworth). It grows successfully in zones 3 to 7.
  • Bluegold — Its parentage is Blue Haven X (Ashworth X Bluecrop). It grows successfully in zones 4 to 7.
  • Friendship – Its source is a Seedling of native plant found growing near Friendship, WI. It grows successfully in zones 3 to 7.
  • Patriot – Its parentage is US3 X Earliblue Univ. of Maine. It grows successfully in zones 3 to 7.

4. : Wild Lowbush Blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium sp.) these are high chill varieties for zones 3 to 7 and need 1,000 to 1,200 chill hours. Wild Lowbush Blueberries are a native fruit crop to Atlantic Canada, Quebec and the state of Maine. Wild Blueberries have grown naturally for thousands of years. They are short in stature and unlike their Highbush cousins, are primarily spread by rhizomes or underground runners, which give rise to new roots and stems. A mature planting can form a dense ground cover. Profuse white blooms yield small-sized light blue fruit with the distinctive “wild” blueberry taste. Annual pruning is not necessary but they respond well if two-thirds of the growth is sheared back every second or third year in late winter. They are great candidates for landscape borders.

Some examples include:

  • Top Hat is Lowbush, dwarf type cultivar. Top Hat is strictly used for ornamental landscape and container purposes. It is recommended for growing in zones 3-7.
  • RUBY CARPET is a Lowbush selection developed by the state of Maine. It is recommended for growing in zones 3-7. The height of plants will be 4 to 6 inches at maturity and spread outward to create the red carpet.

5. Rabbiteye blueberries, Vaccinium ashei These are low chill varieties for Zones 7 to 9.
Rabbiteye blueberries have grown in popularity all across the South. Part of the reason for the popularity of rabbiteye blueberries may be that few major pests of rabbiteye blueberries have been identified. Rabbiteye varieties are resident to the southeastern United States.Rabbiteye plants are more vigorous, easier to be cared for and live longer, than the majority of southern variety. They can handle drought superior to Highbush blueberries. They can grow adequately in soils with a lower amount of organic material in them. Rabbiteye blueberries are usually firmer than southern varieties with thicker skin. The seeds tend to be somewhat more distinct than Highbush. Their after harvest shelf life is exceptional and usually superior to Highbush. The demand for blueberries has increased as more is known about the health benefits of blueberries. Southerners have often not discovered the outstanding quality of rabbiteye blueberries.

Pest of rabbiteye blueberries

A gall midge, is a newly discovered pest of rabbiteye blueberries in the southeastern US. Midge larvae feed inside and destroy flower buds the result is low yields. Rabbiteye blueberry cultivars differ very much in their resistance to blueberry gall midge infestation. Powderblue and Brightwell are highly resistant to flower bud damage; Climax, and Tifblue are moderately susceptible; and Premier is highly susceptible. Most southern Highbush blueberry cultivars are highly resistant to flower bud damage.

Some examples include:

  • Premier- It is an early mid-season ripening rabbiteye producing high yields of firm delicious fruits. They are recommended for growing in zones 7 to 9.
  • Climax- It is a mid-season ripening blueberry with great flavor! The fruits are firm and an excellent choice for fresh and process markets. They are recommended for growing in zones 7 to 9.
  • Powderblue- It is one of the most attractive rabbiteye blueberries that is late maturing. The fruits are medium size and easily removed from the plant. The flavor is sweet. They are recommended for growing in zones 7 to 9.
  • Brightwell- It is a late ripening berry with excellent quality. Flavor is good the fruit size and berry appearance is attractive for fresh markets. They are recommended for growing in zones 7 to 9.
  • Tifblue- It is a late ripening variety. Tifblue has been the most widely planted blueberry in the southeast, because it is productive and has firm fruit. They are recommended for growing in zones 7 to 9.

Summary

There are a number of different types of blueberries that are suitable for different purposes and growing zones. The one thing they all have in common is their high antioxidant capacity and health benefits. You should grow your own pesticide free blueberries. They can be purchased from a reputable on-line source. Purchase those that are best suited for your growing zone.

Old World Historic Destinations

Egypt

Egypt is the cradle of one of the world’s oldest civilizations, rich with ancient treasures, pyramids, tombs and temples. Moreover, it is the fusion of various cultures and religions that survived and co-existed peacefully for so many years that give Egypt its unique identity.

Archaeological sites, Pharaonic tombs, ancient temples, vibrant bazaars and sailing down the Nile are only some of the experiences that will give the traveler an insight into the historically rich tapestry that weaves this amazing country. The beauty of Ancient Egypt, the stunning Mt. Sinai at sunrise, camel trekking into the desert with local Bedouins, donkey rides into the Valley of the Kings makes for some of the most exotic and cherished experiences you will ever encounter. In a journey of a lifetime, indulge into the truly memorable expedition across Egypt’s sandy deserts to the spectacular Gilf Kebir, location of the famous Cave of the Swimmers, romantic and remote landscapes following the great explorations of the Long Range Desert Group and Count Almasy.

While Sinai is an area of outstanding natural beauty, delicate eco-systems and home to many Bedouin villages, a visit to Luxor will take you to the depths of the ancient wonders, Valley of the Kings, and the famous Karnak Temple. The Pyramids, Tomb of Tutankhamum and the wind sculpted rock formations, cliffs with corals and fossils dating back millions of years are some of the other highlights that make Egypt as a tourist destination and truly one of the wonders of the world.

Greece

Greece is the true amalgamation of cultures, colors and civilizations that are not only diverse in nature but rich in history and heritage. Much before most of the world was still trying to break out of its cocoon Greece was known to have already developed its birthright through the elements of chaos, drama, tragedy and democracy. Combined with its deep respect for its ancient traditions, it still believes in the proclivity to partying, an inheritance that has been brought down from the Dionysos.

It is a land of contrasts and ecological value, endowed with a rich and diversified natural environment – legacy of a rare geomorphology. The country’s abundant natural gifts that include thousands of indented coasts, imposing rocky massifs, caves, gorges, lakes, rivers, biotopes of spectacular beauty and unique natural habitats have made Greece a truly unique and popular tourist destination.

Greece is full of ancient archeological sites and monuments of distinctive charm. The rich cultural and historical mosaic has left its impression on every region of the country emphasizing the diverse manifestations of the Greek tradition to date. The Acropolis of Athens, Monastery of Aghio Oros, Temple of Epicurean Apollo, Thessalonica and Monastery of Meteora are the sites characterized as the monuments of cultural heritage. Among its more ancient attractions are the navel of the cosmos at Delphi, fallen columns on the sacred island of Delos, frescoed Minoan palaces on Crete and remnants of Atlantis at Santorini.

China

China situated in eastern Asia and bounded by the Pacific in the East is the third largest country today and one of the four oldest civilizations in the world. It has a written history dating back 4,000 years and boasts rich cultural relics and historical sites.

China claims to be the inventor of the compass, paper and gunpowder as well as having built three ingenious engineering projects 2,000 years ago that include the Great Wall, the Grand Canal and the Karez irrigation systems. Now they represent the rich cultural heritage of this mighty Chinese nation.

It has a 9000 mile coastline where scenic rivers like the Yangtze meander their way from the northern and central mountains to the oceans of the east. The diversity of this nation is vast and unique, in that we see western winds blowing across desert sand dunes, pandas munching bamboo forests in central highlands and rice terraces climbing mountains in the south.

Beijing, one of China’s thriving communities has been confirmed to have existed since the last 3000 years. In the year 1215, it was established as the capital of the newly declared Yuan Dynasty by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan. It was during his rule that the city truly blossomed – imperial palaces were built, streets broadened and temples as well as canals were built. Beijing’s major attractions include the Forbidden City, Jing Shan Park, Tiananmen Square, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Mansion of Prince Gong and Hutongs.

The Yangtze River is known as China’s “Mainstreet.” For thousands of years, this 4,000-mile river provided a vital and only link between China’s seacoast and the rich, fertile lands of inland provinces.

China will always be linked to its ancient civilization, friendly people, and many of the world’s most revered treasures, such as The Great Wall, Terra-Cotta Warriors and Horses and the Yangtze River. Even today we find impressive architecture and towering skylines in Shanghai and Beijing, luxury accommodations as well as exquisite cuisine.

India

India is a vast country with a rich cultural heritage and a diverse historical background. An amalgamation of different ethnicities, traditions, cultures and languages has manifested into many architectural wonders that makes India the land of the unique and the exotic. Its first civilization flourished almost 5000 years ago along the Indus River. The journey since then has been colored with hundreds of rulers and dynasties helping to shape India as we know it today.

In a country as diverse and complex as India, people here reflect the rich glories of the past, the culture, traditions and values relative to geographic locations and the distinctive manners, habits and food that will always remain truly Indian. The colorful mosaic of Indian festivals and fairs – as diverse as the land, is an eternal expression of the spirit of celebration for the Indian people.

India is set apart from the rest of Asia by the Himalayas, the highest, youngest and still evolving mountain chain on the planet. The subcontinent as it is rightly called, touches three large water bodies and holds every kind of landscape imaginable. An abundance of mountain ranges and national parks provide ample opportunity for eco-tourism and trekking, and its sheer size promises something for everyone.

From north to south India extends a good 2000 miles and represents a diversity that is distinctive and spectacular, ranging from the snow covered Himalayas in the North to the sun-drenched beaches of Kerela in the South, from the Rajasthan deserts in the West to the lush forests of north Eastern India. The Taj Mahal in Agra, Meenakshi Temple in Chennai, Arjuna’s Penance at Mahabalipuram, Bharathiyar Illam in Tamil Nadu, the Hawa Mahal, Amber fort and Jantar Mantar in Jaipur, the Ajmer Sharif in Ajmer and many more make up for the unique attractions that India has to offer. Honeymoon getaways, hill stations, pilgrimage sites, wildlife sanctuaries, and beach resorts, there’s something for every traveler in India

Italy

Italy has long been recognized as a country full of historical and cultural attractions. Two-thirds of the world’s historical artistic heritage is in Italy. Rome, the Eternal City, contains the ruins of the Roman forum and Coliseum as well as the independent state of the Vatican City with its famous Sistine Chapel. Naples is close to the ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum, and Mt. Vesuvius is another famous attraction. Florence has been a centre of the arts since the fourteenth century, and has many museums and art galleries along with the Pitti Palace and Ponate Vecchio. The town of Pisa is home to the famous leaning tower and Sienna with its ancient piazza and cathedral is a must see. The majestic Alps in the north, the soft and green hills of Tuscany and Umbria, the romantically rugged landscape of the S Apennines and the Bay of Naples, dominated by Mt. Vesuvius are some of the world’s most famous sights.

Italy is also known as the land of la dolce vita (the sweet life) and is one of the world’s most loved travel destinations. Whether it’s culture, gastronomy, haute couture, or simply the art of dolce far niente — doing nothing and just soaking up the atmosphere – this is a country for lovers of all that is good in life.

National Park Service and it’s Legacy

Artist George Catlin has been credited with presenting the notion of a governmental organization to protect our wilderness and wildlife. His essays reflected anxiety toward the continuing development and its effects of the westward expansion over the natural wonderland. George Catlin expressed the theory of creating a policy or agency to protect the wilderness. The lands of Yellowstone and Yosemite received protection under specific preservation laws in the mid 1800’s. Later the National Park service had begun to be established.

The potential for a booming tourism market inspired many keen investors to band together and lobby for the creation of a National Park service. Most importantly supportive conservationist lobbying began for the preservation of wildlife and natural resources. President Woodrow Wilson officially signed legislation for the creation of the National Park Service on August 25th 1916.

Congress created the national park service as a chapter o the United States department of the Interior. The national park service has since grown to employ over 100,000 people and boast many thousands of volunteers. As a cabinet office to the executive branch of government the National Park service is run by a secretary elected by the president. The national Park service receives a yearly budget of over 2 billion dollars.

The national park service has been actively involved in caring for American monuments, historical properties and parks since 1916. National parks are a place of beautiful picnic spots equally dedicated to the conservation of local wildlife. National parks are available to the public providing spectacular natural scenery and a place to enjoy healthy family entertainment for a lazy afternoon or the whole summer long. The chief duty of the national park service is a commitment to the conservation of historical properties, scenery, wildlife and properties contained within a national park. The national park service promotes public education in reflection of the American landscape. Receiving millions of visitors to over 391 units per year the national park service is a flourishing society.

Yellowstone national park became the world’s very first national park under the National Park Service. Yellowstone was previously privately managed with sometimes uncertain success. Yosemite received some protection as a state park originally but was soon to join in under the protection of the National park Service with others soon to follow. Mount Rainier, Glacier, Crater Lake, and naturally, the beautiful Sequoia, all thankfully receiving protection and conservation under the care of the National Park Service.

It was soon recognized that parks not in the western states should also benefit from the care of the National park Service and Acadia National Park in Maine was also included. Philanthropist John Rockefeller Jr. was among others who assisted in the gradual acquisition of eastern lands. In 1926 the Great Smokey Mountains, Shenandoah and Mammoth cave were all to be included for protection from the National Park Service. In fact later the eastern states with their many historic sites such as battlefields and war memorials became an even larger area under protection from the National Park service.

The National park Service has sustained continual growth and expansion over the past few decades. Presidents agreed to the importance of protecting the American heritage and supported laws even including additional laws and clauses. The National Park service protects living history and educational opportunities as a legacy and shall continue to care and protect the environment for many decades to come by order of their mission statement. To “Conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.”